JLPT N3 Grammatik

あまり (amari): so much… that

あまりに (amari ni): so much… that, too…

ば~ほど (ba ~ hodo): the more… the more

ばいい (ba ii): should, can, it’d be good if

ばかりでなく (bakari denaku): not only… but also, as well as

ばよかった (ba yokatta): should have, it would have been better if

べき (beki): must do, should do

べきではない (beki dewa nai): must not do, should not do

べつに~ない (betsu ni ~ nai): not really, not particularly

中 (chuu/juu): during, throughout

だけ (dake) – 2: as much as

だらけ (darake): covered all over in, full of

どころか (dokoro ka): far from, anything but

どんなに~ても (donna ni ~ temo): no matter how

ふりをする (furi o suru): to pretend, to act as if

ふと (futo): accidentally, unexpectedly

がち (gachi): apt to do, tend to do

がたい (gatai): hard to, difficult to

ぎみ (gimi): -like, -looking

ほど (hodo): the more, to the extent that, so much… that

ほど~ない (hodo ~ nai): is not as… as

いくら~ても (ikura ~ temo): no matter how

一方だ (ippou da): more and more, continue to

一方で (ippou de): on one hand, on the other hand

かけ (kake): half-, not yet finished

代わりに (kawari ni): instead of, in exchange for

っけ (kke): what is… again?

決して~ない (kesshite ~ nai): never, by no means

切る (kiru): to do something completely to the end

切れない (kirenai): being too much to finish or complete

きり (kiri): only, just

こそ (koso): for sure (emphasize preceding word)

こと (koto): (must) do

ことだ (koto da): should

ことがある (koto ga aru): there are times when

ことか (koto ka): how…! what…!

ことに (koto ni): unusually, especially

ことはない (koto wa nai): there is no need to, never happens

くらい (kurai): to the extent that, so… that

くせに: trots att, även om

まま (mama): as it is

まるで (maru de): as if, as though

めったに~ない (metta ni ~ nai): hardly, rarely, seldom

もの (mono): because (indicate reason or excuse)

ものだ (mono da): used to do something, should do something

もしかしたら (moshikashitara): perhaps, maybe

向き (muki): suitable for

向け(muke): intended for, aimed at

ながらも (nagara mo): but, although, despite

ないことはない (nai koto wa nai): can, is not impossible

なんか / なんて (nanka / nante): such as, things like

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なるべく (narubeku): as much as possible
なぜなら (nazenara): because, the reason is

に違いない (ni chigai nai): I’m sure, no doubt that

にかけて (ni kakete): over (a period), through, concerning

に関する / に関して (ni kansu ru / ni kanshite): related to

にかわって (ni kawatte): in stead of, on behalf of

に比べて (ni kurabete): compared to

において/ における (ni oite / ni okeru): in, on, at, as for, regarding


にしては (ni shite wa): for, considering it’s

にしても (ni shite mo): even if

に対して (ni taishite): in contrast to, while, in regard to

にとって (ni totte): to, for, concerning

について (ni tsuite): concerning, regarding

につれて (ni tsurete): as… then

によると / によれば (ni yoru to / ni yoreba): according to

によって / による (ni yotte / ni yoru): by means of, due to

の間に (no aida ni): while, during

を中心に (o chuushin ni): focused on, centered on

をはじめ (o hajime): for example, starting with

おかげで (okage de): thanks to, because of

おそらく (osoraku): perhaps, likely, probably

っぱなし (ppanashi): leaving something on, leaving something still in use

っぽい (ppoi): -ish, -like

さえ (sae): even

さえ~ば (sae ~ ba): if only… then

最中に (saichuu ni): in the middle of

せいで (sei de): because of

しかない (shika nai): have no choice but

その結果 (sono kekka): as a result

そうもない (sou mo nai): very unlikely to

たびに (tabi ni): each time, everytime, whenever

ために (tame ni) 1: for, for the sake of, in order to

ために (tame ni) 2: because of, as a result of

たらいい/といい (tara ii / to ii): it would be nice if, should, I hope

確かに (tashika ni): surely, certainly

たとえ~ても (tatoe ~ temo): even if… is the case

たとえば (tatoeba): for example

た結果 / の結果 (ta kekka/no kekka): as a result of

たとたん (ta totan): just (now, at the moment), as soon as

てごらん (te goran): (please) try to, (please) look

てはじめて (te hajimete): not until, only after… did I

てもかまわない (temo kamawanai): it doesn’t matter if

途中に/途中で (tochuu ni/tochuu de): on the way, in the middle of

といっても (to itte mo): although I say, although one might say

という (to iu): called, named, as much as

ということだ (to iu koto da): I’ve heard that, rumour has it that

というのは (to iu nowa): means, is, because

というと (to iu to): speaking of, if it were the case that

というより (to iu yori): rather than

ところで (tokoro de): by the way

ところが (tokoro ga): even so, however, even though

とおり (toori): in the way, the same as

としたら / とすれば (to shitara / to sureba): if it were the case that, if we assume

として (to shite): as (i.e. in the role of)

とは限らない (towa kagiranai): not necessarily so, is not always true

ついでに (tsuide ni): while you are at it, on the occasion

つまり (tsumari): in other words; that is to say

と共に (to tomo ni): together with

うちに (uchi ni): while, before, doing

わけだ (wake da): for that reason, no wonder, as you’d expect

わけではない (wake dewa nai): it doesn’t mean that, it is not the case

わけがない (wake ga nai): there is no way that

わけにはいかない (wake niwa ikanai): must not, can’t afford to

わりに (wari ni): although, rather, unexpectedly

ような気がする (you na ki ga suru): have a feeling that, think that

ように (you ni): in order to, so that

ようとする (you to suru): try to, be about to

ようとしない (you to shinai): not try to, not make an effort to

ずに (zuni): without doing

ずにはいられない (zu niwa irarenai): can’t help but feel, can’t help but do